Who’s Who in a Treaty

1868 treaty signing with Sioux chiefs in Dakota Territory

Treaties with Indians are interesting not only for what was agreed upon but also for who signed the document. For example, on June 8, 1865, agreement was reached in a treaty between the United States and Ute Indians living in Utah Territory. O.H. Irish, signed for the government as Superintendent of Indian Affairs [for Utah Territory] and also as a Commissioner – a person authorized to negotiate on behalf of the United States.
          The first person to sign as witness to the agreement was Brigham Young.
          Other lesser known witnesses were George A. Smith, President of the Legislative Council of Utah; John Taylor, Speaker of the Utah House of Representatives 1857-58; N.C. Doll, clerk; D.B. Huntington, Interpreter Utah Superintendency; George W. Bean, Interpreter Spanish Fork Farm; and C.A. Huntington, Interpreter Uintah Agency.         
          The clerk wrote the name of each Ute chief or head man and pointed to the place where the Ute should mark his X on the document. Often, the clerk included a translation of the name in English. The following Utes signed this treaty, which was never ratified by the U.S. Congress.

Sow-e-itt (Nearly Starved) 
Kow-osh (Man of white hair)    
Tabby (The Sun)                         
To-quo-ne (Black Mountain Lion)
Sow-ok-see-bet (Arrow Feather)
An-kar-tewets (Red Boy)
Saw-pitch (Bull Rush)
Kibets (Mountain)
Am-oosh
An-kar-aw-keg (Red Rifle)
Nanp-peudes (Foot Mother)
Pan-sook (Otter)
Pean-up (Big Foot)
Eah-gand (Shot to pieces)
Nar-i-ent (Powerful)
Que-o-yand (Bear)

Photo courtesy Denver Public Library Western History Collection

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