The 1913 Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs offers a look back in time at the state of Indian Reservations.
In that year, some 300,000 Indians lived on reservations. The total Indian population was 331,250 (excluding Indians in Alaska). All the reservations combined covered an area as large as the New England States plus the State of New York. Collectively, their lands were valued at $900,000,000. The timber on reservation land had an estimated worth of $80,000,000.
The annual Indian death rate (all causes) was 32.24 deaths per 1,000 Indians. Among the total United States population, the annual death rate was 16 per 1,000 persons. Tuberculosis was a growing problem across the nation. Among Indians, 32% of all deaths were due to tuberculosis compared to 11.2% for the general U.S. population.
Ten thousand Indian children had no schools available.